Electrolytes & the body

voomnutrition Admin

Electrolytes and the Body

During physical activity the body can lose up to 1-2 Litres of sweat per hour. Sweat contains many essential electrolytes and minerals the body requires for basic functions and fluid loss at these rates can quickly lead to dehydration. To avoid the compromising effects of dehydration, you need to replace depleted electrolyte salts and minerals. The most effective way to consume electrolytes is with a low sugar, high electrolyte formulation.

There are 5 key electrolytes which all play an important role in maintaining fluid balance and ensuring the body can perform effectively.

Sodium – drives fluid uptake

Potassium - contributes to normal muscle function and normal functioning of the nervous system

Magnesium
- contributes to normal energy-yielding metabolism, normal functioning of the nervous system, normal muscle function and a reduction in tiredness and fatigue

Calcium
– contributes to normal energy yielding metabolism, muscle function and neurotransmission

Chloride
– helps retain fluid

Research has indicated that the addition of sodium to drinks increases fluid delivery and reduces plasma volume change during exercise (Barr et al. 1991).  Sodium also increases palatability and hence, voluntary drinking (Minehan et al. 2002).

VOOM® Hydrate uses each of these 5 key electrolytes in a carefully balanced formula, to reflect the ratio of electrolytes lost in sweat.


CHO

Na

K

Mg

Ca

Total electrolytes

kcal

Source

mg

Source

mg

Source

mg

Source

mg

Source

90

Maltodextrin, Fructose, Cluster Dextrin

312

Tri sodium citrate, Pink Himalayan salt

84

Potassium Chloride

37

Mag. Oxide and Carbonate

28

Calcium Lactate

461




Sugar and Electrolyte Transportation


Rapid and effective hydration depends on the active co–transport of glucose and sodium molecules through the small intestine. The amount of glucose in a rehydration formula is very important. 2% glucose provides optimal rehydration, whilst minimising stomach discomfort.

‘No sugar’ electrolyte formulations will not activate the co-transport of glucose and sodium; hence hydration is slowed down. Conversely, high sugar sports drinks can leave you feeling bloated and uncomfortable. Research has shown that increasing the amount of carbohydrate leads to a decrease in fluid delivery – the increase in osmolality causes a net movement of water into the intestine, causing a loss in the body water pool. This may also increase the effects of dehydration (Maughan and Leiper. 1999 and Gisolfi et al. 1990).

VOOM® Hydrate uses a tri-carb blend to maximise fluid and energy delivery to working muscles.

    •    Glucose - The absorption of glucose by SGLT1 in the small intestine is directly coupled with the absorption of 2 sodium molecules and ~300 water molecules. This means fluid can be absorbed against a concentration gradient and helps explain why low carbohydrate (3% glucose) drinks increase fluid delivery, compared to water alone (Loo et al. 1996).

    •    Fructose – This sugar is absorbed by GLUT5 in the intestinal cell membrane, therefore can be absorbed alongside glucose.

    •    Cluster dextrin is used alongside maltodextrin, due to it effect of enhanced gastric emptying, therefore, quicker transportation of electrolytes into the body.

Know your ‘tonics’

    •    Hypotonic - the drink has a lower concentration of salt and sugar than blood, which drives fluid uptake by the body, meaning water is transported out of the stomach and intestines more quickly. VOOM® Hydrate is hypotonic.

    •    Isotonic – the drink has the same concentration of salt and sugar as blood. The fluid is absorbed into the blood stream, not as quickly as a hypotonic solution, but quicker than a hypertonic solution.

    •    Hypertonic – the drink has a higher concentration of salt and sugar than blood, which causes movement of water out of cells. This can cause water to flood into the stomach and cause gastric upset. Recommended for post-workout, when digestion isn’t compromised.